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Molecular biology of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a key factor in several processes which can be important for general homeostasis. VDRs are found in a variety of skin cells, including monocytes, dendritic cells, macrophages, neutrophils, keratinocytes, and epithelial cells.

The vitamin D receptor is a elemental receptor that is triggered by the calciferol hormone. This can be a receptor that varieties a heterodimer with the retinoid X radio. The binding of the vitamin D complex with all the RXR ends in the account activation of a couple of intracellular signaling pathways. These kinds of pathways induce immediate answers independent of the transcriptional response of target genes.

VDRs are likewise thought to mediate the effects of vitamin D on bone tissue maintenance. This is supported by the correlation between bone fragments density and VDR receptor alleles in humans. In addition , numerous VDR concentrate on genes have been completely identified, which include calcium-binding proteins, calbindin D-9k and 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase.

Many studies include investigated the word of VDR in various areas. For instance, confocal microscopy has shown VDR indivisible staining in human emballage cells. Additionally , VDR has been detected in white-colored matter oligodendrocytes. These studies have resulted in the hypothesis that calcium-dependent platelet activation may be governed by rapid non-genomic effects of VDR in mitochondria.

In addition to vitamin D, VDRs have been implicated in regulation of calcium homeostasis in the intestinal tract. Nevertheless , the exact device is not yet known. Various factors, including environmental exposures and genetic elements, may regulate VDR phrase.